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Monday, November 26, 2012



The descend of an organ from its normal confinement (position) is called hernia.

Causes of hernia:

Increase intra abdominal pressure due to:
·         Intra abdominal malignancy
·         Powerful muscular effort or strain occasioned by lifting a heavy weight
·         Chronic cough
·         Chronic constipation
·         Straining on micturation or defecation (urethral stricture leading to persistent straining)
·         Pregnancy
·         Obesity

Composition of hernia:

Hernial sac/ covering:

Skin, muscle and peritoneum


Omentum, fluid, intestine, a portion of circumference of intestine (Richter’s hernia)

Classification of herniae:

1.       Inguinal hernia (direct/indirect)
2.       Epigastic hernia
3.       Umbilical hernia
4.       Femoral hernia
5.       Lumbar hernia
6.       Incisional hernia


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